(Exo 24:1 NASB) Then He said to Moses, “Come up to the LORD, you and Aaron, Nadab and Abihu and seventy of the elders of Israel, and you shall worship at a distance.
Exo 24:1: This chapter is the consummation of the covenant between Elohim and Israel that was first described in chapter 19. At that time, all the people agreed to follow the Torah of Elohim (Ex. 19:5-9).
Elohim now tells Moses to bring Aaron, his two sons (Nadab and Abihu), and seventy of the elders to Him. If we recall, Nadab and Abihu later were killed by Elohim for offering a strange fire before Him (Lev. 10:1-2).
(Exo 24:2 NASB) “Moses alone, however, shall come near to the LORD, but they shall not come near, nor shall the people come up with him.”
Exo 24:2: Moses alone could approach Elohim. Aaron, his sons, and the elders of Israel were not able to do so, just Moses. This is another way in which Moses was a shadow of Yeshua. Moses and Yeshua are the only two people Elohim spoke to in a direct fashion.
(Exo 24:3 NASB) Then Moses came and recounted to the people all the words of the LORD and all the ordinances; and all the people answered with one voice, and said, “All the words which the LORD has spoken we will do!”
Exo 24:3: Once again, the people agreed to obey all the words spoken by Yahweh. They were given several chances to decide whether or not they truly wanted to enter into this covenant with Him.
(Exo 24:4 NASB) And Moses wrote down all the words of the LORD. Then he arose early in the morning, and built an altar at the foot of the mountain with twelve pillars for the twelve tribes of Israel.
(Exo 24:5 NASB) And he sent young men of the sons of Israel, and they offered burnt offerings and sacrificed young bulls as peace offerings to the LORD.
Exo 24:5: A few chapters previous, we established that Mt. Sinai was a type of Tabernacle. Moses (as High Priest) was allowed to ascend to the top. The priests were allowed to ascend partway. The rest of the people had to stay away from the mountain.
In the same way, only the High Priest is allowed inside the Holy of Holies, priests were allowed in the Holy Place, and the people had to remain in the outer court.
Here, Moses is taking this a step further by adding an altar of sacrifice to the setting at Mt. Sinai.
The “young men of the sons of Israel” were probably the first born sons who were dedicated to service to Yahweh. It wasn’t until later that Elohim called for the Levites instead of the firstborn of the sons of Israel.
(Exo 24:6 NASB) And Moses took half of the blood and put it in basins, and the other half of the blood he sprinkled on the altar.
(Exo 24:7 NASB) Then he took the book of the covenant and read it in the hearing of the people; and they said, “All that the LORD has spoken we will do, and we will be obedient!”
Exo 24:7: Moses took the blood of the sacrifices and divided it up into two parts. Half of it was put in basins. The other half was sprinkled on the altar of sacrifice.
The blood is going to play a very important part in the covenant between Elohim and the people. Once again, the people agree to do everything that is written in the book of the Covenant.
Keep in mind that the book itself is not the Covenant. The book contains the Torah which the people took a Covenant to obey.
(Exo 24:8 NASB) So Moses took the blood and sprinkled it on the people, and said, “Behold the blood of the covenant, which the LORD has made with you in accordance with all these words.”
Exo 24:8: What is usually termed the “Mosaic Covenant” or the “Old Covenant” was a blood covenant in the same way as the New Covenant (Matt. 26:28, Mark 14:24). Notice the wording. Yeshua states that His blood is the blood OF the Covenant, not that His blood IS the New Covenant. Yeshua also stated that the New Covenant is IN His blood. His blood is not the New Covenant, but the New Covenant is IN His blood (Luke 22:20, 1 Cor. 11:25).
Moses sprinkled the blood on the people to designate their obligation to the Covenant. With the New Covenant, we are sprinkled with clean water which is His Word (Eph. 5:26-27, Ezek. 36:25-27). Remembering that the vehicle of the New Covenant is the blood of Yeshua Messiah.
(Exo 24:9 NASB) Then Moses went up with Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel,
(Exo 24:10 NASB) and they saw the God of Israel; and under His feet there appeared to be a pavement of sapphire, as clear as the sky itself.
(Exo 24:11 NASB) Yet He did not stretch out His hand against the nobles of the sons of Israel; and they beheld God, and they ate and drank.
Exo 24:11: They did not look upon Him, but saw a vision of Him. Therefore, there is no description given of Him. They only described what was beneath Him as being a pavement of Sapphire.
Elohim did not stretch His Hand out against them, for it would have meant certain death. Instead He allowed them to stay and eat and drink. A feast is the way a covenant is often sealed (Gen. 26: 28-30, 31:52-54).
Yeshua gave the New Covenant at His last Passover Feast (Matt. 26:26-28). We know that the New Covenant will not be totally consummated until He returns. At that time, we will be made whole and will be totally spotless and blameless before Him. Then we will feast with Him again (Matt. 26:29). This will be the Marriage Supper of the Lamb (Rev. 19:7-9). Just like the Mosaic covenant, it will be on the mountain and we will feast with Him. (Isaiah 25:6-8).
(Exo 24:12 NASB) Now the LORD said to Moses, “Come up to Me on the mountain and remain there, and I will give you the stone tablets with the law and the commandment which I have written for their instruction.”
Exo 24:12: The Commandments are given directly to Moses Himself. Moses will then give them to the people. Elohim wants Moses to stay up on the mountain for a while.
(Exo 24:13 NASB) So Moses arose with Joshua his servant, and Moses went up to the mountain of God.
(Exo 24:14 NASB) But to the elders he said, “Wait here for us until we return to you. And behold, Aaron and Hur are with you; whoever has a legal matter, let him approach them.”
Exo 24:14: Aaron and his sons were left in charge while Moses is gone. They will make any legal decisions while he is gone.
We are not told why Joshua went up with Moses, but he did.
(Exo 24:15 NASB) Then Moses went up to the mountain, and the cloud covered the mountain.
(Exo 24:16 NASB) And the glory of the LORD rested on Mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it for six days; and on the seventh day He called to Moses from the midst of the cloud.
Exo 24:16: The Hebrew word for rested is shakan means “to dwell.” This word comes from the same root word as mishkan which means “tabernacle.” Elohim will be giving Moses the design of the Tabernacle in the ensuing chapters.
Elohim was in the midst of a cloud just as He did at the inital agreement of the Covenant (Ex. 19:6-9) and at the transfiguration of Messiah (Matt. 17:1-5).
(Exo 24:17 NASB) And to the eyes of the sons of Israel the appearance of the glory of the LORD was like a consuming fire on the mountain top.
(Exo 24:18 NASB) And Moses entered the midst of the cloud as he went up to the mountain; and Moses was on the mountain forty days and forty nights.
Exo 24:18: After seven days, Moses entered into the midst of the cloud and stayed there for forty days and forty nights. This is the same amount of time that Elijah went without food and water as he journeyed to Sinai (1 Kings 19:8). This follows the same pattern given to Noah before the flood (Gen. 7:4).
This is also the time that Yeshua was tested in the wilderness (Matt. 4:2).
Patrick McGuireCopyright 2014 Patrick McGuire and Beit Yeshua Torah Assembly All rights reserved, no portion of this Lesson may be reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission except in the case of brief quotations in articles and reviews. Beit Yeshua Torah Assembly Fort Smith, Arkansas