Leviticus 5: This chapter covers the trespass (or guilt) offering. What is a trespass? What does a sign that says “No Trespassing,” mean? A trespass means you invaded on the rights of others. You can go around swinging your fist anywhere you want, but your right to do that ends where my nose begins.
A trespass can occur against Elohim or against man. Even when a trespass occurs against another person, the trespass is also against Elohim. It is our trespasses against Him that separates us from Him. This offering is the penalty paid for unintentional trespasses against Elohim
(Lev 5:1 NASB) ‘Now if a person sins, after he hears a public adjuration to testify, when he is a witness, whether he has seen or otherwise known, if he does not tell it, then he will bear his guilt.
Lev 5:1: The list of sins mentioned here are a few of the examples that could be listed.
This offense pertains to being a witness and not saying everything you know when it could help someone. Today we say, “I saw what happened and I am a witness, but I don’t want to get involved.” The person who does that commits a sin of omission. Many people will think their noses are clean pertaining to sin but will commit this sin. James tells us it is still sin (James 4:17). James, once again, is just teaching Torah. He is not making up new things for us.
You will remember that when Yeshua Messiah was on trial, He was quiet. But, when He was put under oath, He broke His silence (Matt. 26:63-64). Under oath, Messiah did not hold His peace. When He was a witness, He uttered the truth and the whole truth.
The first fourteen verses describe the guilt offering for the sin of verbal omission, touching uncleanness, or swearing thoughtlessly. Verses 15 and 16 describe the guilt offering for unintentionally eating part of the sacrifice. And the last few verses describe the guilt offering for breaking the commandments.
(Lev 5:2 NASB) ‘Or if a person touches any unclean thing, whether a carcass of an unclean beast, or the carcass of unclean cattle, or a carcass of unclean swarming things, though it is hidden from him, and he is unclean, then he will be guilty.
Lev 5:2: This is insightful knowledge of biological infection disclosed in the Word of Elohim 3500 years ago. There is no way Moses could have known the medical seriousness of touching a dead carcass even if by accident. This information could only have come from Elohim Himself.
(Lev 5:3 NASB) ‘Or if he touches human uncleanness, of whatever sort his uncleanness may be with which he becomes unclean, and it is hidden from him, and then he comes to know it, he will be guilty.
Lev 5:3: The uncleanness mentioned here pertains to touching menstrual blood, human discharges, and human waste. Elohim is prohibiting the Israelites from the disease and sickness of other nations.
The most advanced nation in that day, scientifically and medically, was undoubtedly Egypt. We are told in Scripture that Moses was trained all the knowledge of the Egyptians (Acts 7:22). But the sophisticated Egyptian medical practices of that day were not exactly healthy. Many of the prescribed cures for sicknesses involved ingesting lizards blood, swines teeth, putrid meat, stinking fat, moisture from a pigs’ ear, goose grease, donkeys hoofs, animal fats, and the most important ingredient of all: animal and human feces. The Egyptian remedy for constipation was: zizyphus bread, gurma, cat’s dung, sweet beer, and wine. The mortality rate from infection due to such lethal medicines must have been horrible. This was due to their lack of knowledge of germs and infection.
The Word of Elohim as recorded by Moses was the exact opposite of the Egyptian “wisdom” he learned. There are approximately 613 laws recorded in the Torah and it is said that 213 of those laws detailed medical regulations to prevent disease and infection through sanitation and preventive medicine. It is impossible for the people of that day to have had these remarkable insights of microbiology. This is yet another proof that Scripture is the Word of Elohim Himself.
(Lev 5:4 NASB) ‘Or if a person swears thoughtlessly with his lips to do evil or to do good, in whatever matter a man may speak thoughtlessly with an oath, and it is hidden from him, and then he comes to know it, he will be guilty in one of these.
Lev 5:4: This sin involves careless speech. Promising to do something and then forgetting about it and not doing it.
For the sins listed above (and probably similar ones), the appropriate guilt offering is listed below.
(Lev 5:5 NASB) ‘So it shall be when he becomes guilty in one of these, that he shall confess that in which he has sinned.
(Lev 5:6 NASB) ‘He shall also bring his guilt offering to the LORD for his sin which he has committed, a female from the flock, a lamb or a goat as a sin offering. So the priest shall make atonement on his behalf for his sin.
Lev 5:6: Yeshua was probably referring to this sacrifice when He was speaking about bringing a gift to the altar (Matt. 5:23-24). Reconciliation must occur first.
(Lev 5:7 NASB) ‘But if he cannot afford a lamb, then he shall bring to the LORD his guilt offering for that in which he has sinned, two turtledoves or two young pigeons, one for a sin offering and the other for a burnt offering.
Lev 5:7: If the offerer was poor, he could bring two pigeons or two turtledoves. He was then to do a trespass offering and a burnt offering.
(Lev 5:8 NASB) ‘And he shall bring them to the priest, who shall offer first that which is for the sin offering and shall nip its head at the front of its neck, but he shall not sever it.
(Lev 5:9 NASB) ‘He shall also sprinkle some of the blood of the sin offering on the side of the altar, while the rest of the blood shall be drained out at the base of the altar: it is a sin offering.
Lev 5:9: Blood must be shed for the offering, but the head is not to be removed from it’s neck.
(Lev 5:10 NASB) ‘The second he shall then prepare as a burnt offering according to the ordinance. So the priest shall make atonement on his behalf for his sin which he has committed, and it shall be forgiven him.
Lev 5:10: The sinner has complete forgiveness with the one little sacrifice. This points to the one sacrifice of Yeshua Messiah.
(Lev 5:11 NASB) ‘But if his means are insufficient for two turtledoves or two young pigeons, then for his offering for that which he has sinned, he shall bring the tenth of an ephah of fine flour for a sin offering; he shall not put oil on it or place incense on it, for it is a sin offering.
Lev 5:11: The poorest of the poor were not left out. Notice that this offering does not have incense or oil. This offering does not have a sweet savor. It is not an offering of fellowship or flavor. Elohim takes no delight in this offering and it would have been preferred, so to speak, that this offering not take place in the first place. It points to Messiah and what He had to do because of our sin.
(Lev 5:12 NASB) ‘And he shall bring it to the priest, and the priest shall take his handful of it as its memorial portion and offer it up in smoke on the altar, with the offerings of the LORD by fire: it is a sin offering.
(Lev 5:13 NASB) ‘So the priest shall make atonement for him concerning his sin which he has committed from one of these, and it shall be forgiven him; then the rest shall become the priest’s, like the grain offering.'”
Lev 5:13: The priest was allowed to partake in part of the poor man’s offering in the same way he would partake of a grain offering.
The guilt offering for some unintentional verbal sins and for sins of touching unclean things is variable depending upon the means of the offender. However, the guilt offering for breaking Torah in any other manner is not flexible.
(Lev 5:14 NASB) Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,
(Lev 5:15 NASB) “If a person acts unfaithfully and sins unintentionally against the LORD’S holy things, then he shall bring his guilt offering to the LORD: a ram without defect from the flock, according to your valuation in silver by shekels, in terms of the shekel of the sanctuary, for a guilt offering.
(Lev 5:16 NASB) “And he shall make restitution for that which he has sinned against the holy thing, and shall add to it a fifth part of it, and give it to the priest. The priest shall then make atonement for him with the ram of the guilt offering, and it shall be forgiven him.
Lev 5:16: The guilt offering for unintentionally eating part of an offering to Elohim is a ram. Plus, he is to replace the offering that he unintentionally had, plus add one-fifth more to it (Lev. 22:14-16).
(Lev 5:17 NASB) “Now if a person sins and does any of the things which the LORD has commanded not to be done, though he was unaware, still he is guilty, and shall bear his punishment.
(Lev 5:18 NASB) “He is then to bring to the priest a ram without defect from the flock, according to your valuation, for a guilt offering. So the priest shall make atonement for him concerning his error in which he sinned unintentionally and did not know it, and it shall be forgiven him.
(Lev 5:19 NASB) “It is a guilt offering; he was certainly guilty before the LORD.”
Lev 5:19: This offering is for breaking any of Elohim’s Commandments through ignorance. Ignorance of the Torah is no excuse. The only offering allowed for breaking His Torah in any other way is a ram.
Patrick McGuireCopyright 2014 Patrick McGuire and Beit Yeshua Torah Assembly All rights reserved, no portion of this Lesson may be reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission except in the case of brief quotations in articles and reviews. Beit Yeshua Torah Assembly Fort Smith, Arkansas