(Mat 10:1 NASB) And having summoned His twelve disciples, He gave them authority over unclean spirits, to cast them out, and to heal every kind of disease and every kind of sickness.
Mat 10:1: The disciples (taught ones, learners, pupils) were given authority of unclean spirits and to heal sickness and disease. He is going to send them out to Israel.
(Mat 10:2 NASB) Now the names of the twelve apostles are these: The first, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother; and James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother;
(Mat 10:3 NASB) Philip and Bartholomew; Thomas and Matthew the tax-gatherer; James the son of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus;
(Mat 10:4 NASB) Simon the Zealot, and Judas Iscariot, the one who betrayed Him.
(Mat 10:5 NASB) These twelve Jesus sent out after instructing them, saying, “Do not go in the way of the Gentiles, and do not enter any city of the Samaritans;
(Mat 10:6 NASB) but rather go to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.
Mat 10:6: Yeshua says they are to go to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. What does He mean “lost sheep of the house of Israel?” This is an interesting phrase. It is one that is used frequently referring to His people (Psalm 119:176, Isa. 53:6, Jer. 50:6-7, Ezek. 34 6-16).
(Mat 10:7 NASB) “And as you go, preach, saying, ‘The kingdom of heaven is at hand.’
Mat 10:7: The term, “the kingdom of heaven” is a reference to the kingdom that Elohim will set up on earth (Dan. 2:44).
Here is an area that is difficult to interpret. Why were the disciples told to say that the kingdom “is at hand?” The disciples were preaching this news. If that is the case, then why didn’t the kingdom come? The answer is actually that the kingdom is here in the presence of His people who, through the Spirit of the Father, are obedient to Him and honor Yeshua as Messiah (Rev.1:5-6, 5:9-10).
The problem is that the people in that day rejected Him as King. Yeshua said that if they would accept the kingdom, then John the Baptist is Elijah who was to come (Matt. 11:12-14). But the people did not recognize John as Elijah, therefore the Son of Man was killed (Matt. 17:10-13).
John was truly the return of Elijah as spoken by the prophet Malachi (Mal. 4:4-6). This is testified in Luke also (Luke 1:16-17). John’s message was to return to Torah (Matt. 3:1-3)
(Mat 10:8 NASB) “Heal the sick, raise the dead, cleanse the lepers, cast out demons; freely you received, freely give.
Mat 10:8: Their message was authenticated by miraculous feats. As freely as they received, they were to give.
(Mat 10:9 NASB) “Do not acquire gold, or silver, or copper for your money belts,
(Mat 10:10 NASB) or a bag for your journey, or even two tunics, or sandals, or a staff; for the worker is worthy of his support.
Mat 10:10: This seems to be a unique command for this particular missionary journey. Yeshua later pointed out that Elohim provided for them, but the night He was betrayed they were to bring their own supplies (Luke 22:35-37).
With this being the case, it is difficult to say which is correct. I think it is always prudent to prepare. It would seem as if one were testing Elohim if he goes out with nothing saying, “Elohim will provide.”
The disciples were told to leave for their journey to the cities in Israel with the message “The Kingdom of Heaven is at hand.” This was a special message for them saying that the Kingdom of Heaven is about to arrive. It is the same message given by John the Baptist (Matt. 3:1-2) and Yeshua (Matt. 4:17). It was an urgent message in that day that Yeshua would later return to fulfill (Acts 1:6-7).
It would appear that some of these instructions were applicable to that message for that day and were not blanket commands on how to approach others concerning Yeshua and the Ways of the Father.
(Mat 10:11 NASB) “And into whatever city or village you enter, inquire who is worthy in it; and abide there until you go away.
(Mat 10:12 NASB) “And as you enter the house, give it your greeting.
(Mat 10:13 NASB) “And if the house is worthy, let your greeting of peace come upon it; but if it is not worthy, let your greeting of peace return to you.
Mat 10:13: The disciples were to enter a city or village and inquire who men of good reputation were. They were to stay at these houses.
When they entered, they were to give the traditional greeting of “shalom.” If the house is worthy that house would have shalom upon it. If it was not worthy, the shalom would return to that disciple and the blessing for that house would be forfeited.
(Mat 10:14 NASB) “And whoever does not receive you, nor heed your words, as you go out of that house or that city, shake off the dust of your feet.
(Mat 10:15 NASB) “Truly I say to you, it will be more tolerable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment, than for that city.
Mat 10:15: When the Day of Judgment comes; it will be more tolerable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrah than for that city who rejects them and their message.
Rejection of that particular message meant rejection of the kingdom. This was apparently the reason for the delay in the fulfillment of the kingdom.
We are told in Marks account that the message included repentance (Mark 6:10-12).
(Mat 10:16 NASB) “Behold, I send you out as sheep in the midst of wolves; therefore be shrewd as serpents, and innocent as doves.
(Mat 10:17 NASB) “But beware of men; for they will deliver you up to the courts, and scourge you in their synagogues;
(Mat 10:18 NASB) and you shall even be brought before governors and kings for My sake, as a testimony to them and to the Gentiles.
Mat 10:18: The disciples are to be careful in their dealings with men. They will be brought to courts and this will be their opportunity to testify to governors, kings, and the Gentiles.
(Mat 10:19 NASB) “But when they deliver you up, do not become anxious about how or what you will speak; for it shall be given you in that hour what you are to speak.
(Mat 10:20 NASB) “For it is not you who speak, but it is the Spirit of your Father who speaks in you.
Mat 10:20: Once again, that was the message to these disciples on this particular trip. It is going to cause much division.
(Mat 10:21 NASB) “And brother will deliver up brother to death, and a father his child; and children will rise up against parents, and cause them to be put to death.
(Mat 10:22 NASB) “And you will be hated by all on account of My name, but it is the one who has endured to the end who will be saved.
(Mat 10:23 NASB) “But whenever they persecute you in this city, flee to the next; for truly I say to you, you shall not finish going through the cities of Israel, until the Son of Man comes.
Mat 10:23: Yeshua did not come to cause unity through compromise. He came to cause division.
He says that those who endure persecution until the end of this mission will be saved from death. He is not saying “those who keep their faith to the end will be saved.”
Then He says that they will not finish going through all the cities of Israel before He gathers them back together.
(Mat 10:24 NASB) “A disciple is not above his teacher, nor a slave above his master.
(Mat 10:25 NASB) “It is enough for the disciple that he become as his teacher, and the slave as his master. If they have called the head of the house Beelzebul, how much more the members of his household!
Mat 10:25: The disciples should not expect better treatment than Yeshua received. The Pharisees already think of Him as Beelzebub (a derivative of Baal, meaning Satan). (Matt. 9:33-34)
(Mat 10:26 NASB) “Therefore do not fear them, for there is nothing covered that will not be revealed, and hidden that will not be known.
(Mat 10:27 NASB) “What I tell you in the darkness, speak in the light; and what you hear whispered in your ear, proclaim upon the housetops.
Mat 10:27: They are to teach publicly the things Yeshua taught them in private. This is Truth that Yeshua is quoting from the Tanakh (Prov. 1:20-23, 8:1-5).
(Mat 10:28 NASB) “And do not fear those who kill the body, but are unable to kill the soul; but rather fear Him who is able to destroy both soul and body in hell.
Mat 10:28: The reference to “hell” is the Greek word ghenna. Ghenna was the trash dump outside of Jerusalem and was also a place where dead bodies of vagrants and criminals were thrown. It is used as a reference to the place of final judgment of the wicked.
The term “kill” is apokteino which means to destroy. Those that hate the disciples could destroy their bodies, but could not ultimately destroy them at the final judgment. The soul is not “destroyed” at death, but is asleep. They were to fear Elohim, not man.
This passage also speaks of the final judgment of the wicked to be an annihilation of sorts and not a punishment of eternal agony.
(Mat 10:29 NASB) “Are not two sparrows sold for a cent? And yet not one of them will fall to the ground apart from your Father.
Mat 10:29: This passage makes more sense in the NKJV:
(Mat 10:29 NKJV) ”Are not two sparrows sold for a copper coin? And not one of them falls to the ground apart from your Father’s will.
Even sparrows do not die unless it is the Father’s will. How much more so will He value the lives of His people?
(Mat 10:30 NASB) “But the very hairs of your head are all numbered.
(Mat 10:31 NASB) “Therefore do not fear; you are of more value than many sparrows.
Mat 10:31: We have nothing to fear from man. He cannot harm us unless it is Father’s will.
(Mat 10:32 NASB) “Everyone therefore who shall confess Me before men, I will also confess him before My Father who is in heaven.
(Mat 10:33 NASB) “But whoever shall deny Me before men, I will also deny him before My Father who is in heaven.
Mat 10:33: To deny Yeshua is to deny the faith is to deny the power of eternal life itself (Luke 9:26, 12:8-9, 2 Tim. 2:12, 2 Peter 2:1, 1 John 2:23). This is prophesied in Torah (Deut. 18:18-19).
(Mat 10:34 NASB) “Do not think that I came to bring peace on the earth; I did not come to bring peace, but a sword.
Mat 10:34: Yeshua came to set up His kingdom. He did not come to bring peace, but He brought a sword. That sword would have brought destruction at this time if Israel had accepted Him and not rejected Him. What sword did He bring? It is the one that comes out of His mouth (Rev. 1:16:19:15).
(Mat 10:35 NASB) “For I came to SET A MAN AGAINST HIS FATHER, AND A DAUGHTER AGAINST HER MOTHER, AND A DAUGHTER-IN-LAW AGAINST HER MOTHER-IN-LAW;
(Mat 10:36 NASB) and A MAN’S ENEMIES WILL BE THE MEMBERS OF HIS HOUSEHOLD.
Mat 10:36: This is a quote from the Tanakh (Micah 7:5-7). Yeshua did not come to bring everyone together in compromise, but to separate the sheep from the goats. What is it that separates the sheep form the goats? It is righteousness.
(Mat 10:37 NASB) “He who loves father or mother more than Me is not worthy of Me; and he who loves son or daughter more than Me is not worthy of Me.
Mat 10:37: This is a reference to those Israelites who kept the Word of Elohim even though their parents and siblings were not (Deut. 33:8-9). His Word is to be the most important thing in our lives.
(Mat 10:38 NASB) “And he who does not take his cross and follow after Me is not worthy of Me.
(Mat 10:39 NASB) “He who has found his life shall lose it, and he who has lost his life for My sake shall find it.
Mat 10:39: The word for “cross” is stauros, which means “stake” or “beam.” We should love His Word more than life itself. If this is not the case, then we need to pray that it is so.
(Mat 10:40 NASB) “He who receives you receives Me, and he who receives Me receives Him who sent Me.
(Mat 10:41 NASB) “He who receives a prophet in the name of a prophet shall receive a prophet’s reward; and he who receives a righteous man in the name of a righteous man shall receive a righteous man’s reward.
Mat 10:41: We see in many instances in the Tanakh that those who received the prophets were blessed. Yeshua was calling His disciples prophets because they were taking His message from the Father of “Repent, for the Kingdom of Elohim is at hand” to the people of Israel.
(Mat 10:42 NASB) “And whoever in the name of a disciple gives to one of these little ones even a cup of cold water to drink, truly I say to you he shall not lose his reward.”
Mat 10:42: Even the smallest act of obedience to the message of the disciples will be rewarded.
Patrick McGuireCopyright 2014 Patrick McGuire and Beit Yeshua Torah Assembly All rights reserved, no portion of this Lesson may be reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission except in the case of brief quotations in articles and reviews. Beit Yeshua Torah Assembly Fort Smith, Arkansas