(Mat 26:1 NASB) And it came about that when Jesus had finished all these words, He said to His disciples,
(Mat 26:2 NASB) “You know that after two days the Passover is coming, and the Son of Man is to be delivered up for crucifixion.”
Mat 26:2: Now, if we have this timing correct, this is on a Tuesday and Passover is on Thursday in 32 AD… Some people claim that Yeshua was crucified on a Friday, but that is not possible. We are told in John 11:54 to John 12:1 that Yeshua traveled from Bethany to Jerusalem six days previous. That means He would have walked at least 15 miles as the crow flies on that day. It was probably closer to 25 miles or more since waterways had to be crossed. If Yeshua were crucified on a Friday, six days previous would have been on the Sabbath Day. He probably would not have traveled that far on the Sabbath. Paul sometimes made it a point not to travel on the Sabbath. Yeshua would have done the same unless it was absolutely necessary.
Many claim that Passover in 32 AD would have been on a Sunday, Monday, or Tuesday. It is difficult to say precisely what day of the week Passover would have been on in the past. Sir Robert Anderson, Chief Inspector of Scotland Yard said that Passover was on Thursday in 32 AD. I think his findings are as good as any.
(Mat 26:3 NASB) Then the chief priests and the elders of the people were gathered together in the court of the high priest, named Caiaphas;
(Mat 26:4 NASB) and they plotted together to seize Jesus by stealth, and kill Him.
(Mat 26:5 NASB) But they were saying, “Not during the festival, lest a riot occur among the people.”
Mat 26:5: The Pharisees may have understood that Yeshua was speaking of them in the parables in the previous chapter. They had to work fast. They only had two days to get Him into position to seize him. They wanted to do it before the Feast of Unleavened Bread starts. The Feast of Unleavened Bread is a time of celebration. They did not want to try to get Him killed during that time.
(Mat 26:6 NASB) Now when Jesus was in Bethany, at the home of Simon the leper,
(Mat 26:7 NASB) a woman came to Him with an alabaster vial of very costly perfume, and she poured it upon His head as He reclined at the table.
Mat 26:7: Why was this such a special event that Yeshua later says that this woman would be remembered for this throughout their generations? I believe that Yeshua was being anointed for His appointment as High Priest after His death, burial, and resurrection. While the woman could not have used the precise mixture, it is similar to what was used for anointing the High Priest and priests (Ex. 30:25-30).
Psalm 133 equates the anointing of the High Priest with the return of Messiah and fellowship being throughout the land (Psalm 133:1-3).
(Mat 26:8 NASB) But the disciples were indignant when they saw this, and said, “Why this waste?
(Mat 26:9 NASB) “For this perfume might have been sold for a high price and the money given to the poor.”
Mat 26:9: We are told in John that this complaint was actually done my Judas Iscariot who stole from the treasury (John 12:4-6).
(Mat 26:10 NASB) But Jesus, aware of this, said to them, “Why do you bother the woman? For she has done a good deed to Me.
(Mat 26:11 NASB)”For the poor you have with you always; but you do not always have Me.
(Mat 26:12 NASB) ”For when she poured this perfume upon My body, she did it to prepare Me for burial.
(Mat 26:13 NASB) “Truly I say to you, wherever this gospel is preached in the whole world, what this woman has done shall also be spoken of in memory of her.”
Mat 26:13: It was typical to bury kings and anoint their bodies with such a mixture (2 Chron. 16:13-14).
(Mat 26:14 NASB) Then one of the twelve, named Judas Iscariot, went to the chief priests,
(Mat 26:15 NASB) and said, “What are you willing to give me to deliver Him up to you?” And they weighed out to him thirty pieces of silver.
Mat 26:15: The timing was perfect. Judas was upset because there would have been money available that he could have stolen. It is almost like he took it personally. So he went to the Pharisees to see what he could get from them.
They gave him 30 pieces of silver. This is the same price for the life of a slave in Israel (Exodus 21:32).
(Mat 26:16 NASB) And from then on he began looking for a good opportunity to betray Him.
Mat 26:16: It would appear that Judas was taking the situation with the oiled perfume very seriously…
(Mat 26:17 NASB) Now on the first day of Unleavened Bread the disciples came to Jesus, saying, “Where do You want us to prepare for You to eat the Passover?”
Mat 26:17: This did not actually take place on the “first day” of the Feast. Then it would have been after Passover. The term “first” is the Greek word “G4413. prwtos,” contr. superl. of G4253; first, chief:– before(3), best(1), first(127), first importance(1), first man(1), first of all(2), first one(1), first things(1), first time(1), foremost(5), leading(2), leading man(1), leading men(5), outer(m)(2), outer one(m)(1), previous(1). It should be translated “before” instead of “first…” the word “day” is not in the Greek.
(Mat 26:18 NASB) And He said, “Go into the city to a certain man, and say to him, ‘The Teacher says, “My time is at hand; I am to keep the Passover at your house with My disciples.”‘”
(Mat 26:19 NASB) And the disciples did as Jesus had directed them; and they prepared the Passover.
Mat 26:19: The early Passover celebration is apparently something that was pre-planned by Yeshua. Yeshua told them which “certain man” to go to and this man had a room prepared for them.
Some people have stated that it was wrong for them to celebrate Passover before the prescribed time. The Passover lamb was not to be slain before twilight (about 3 PM) on the fourteenth of the month (Ex. 12:4-8). This was the thirteenth of the month, although they apparently did not perform the celebration until after the sun went down. We are told that they ate the meal, but no mention is made of the lamb or its slaughter. It is likely they did not eat a lamb and celebrated the Passover in fellowship and to institute the New Covenant with Israel.
(Mat 26:20 NASB) Now when evening had come, He was reclining at the table with the twelve disciples.
(Mat 26:21 NASB) And as they were eating, He said, “Truly I say to you that one of you will betray Me.”
(Mat 26:22 NASB) And being deeply grieved, they each one began to say to Him, “Surely not I, Lord?”
Mat 26:22: Notice that Yeshua is speaking in a future tense. That caused the disciples to question themselves. They were not being defensive.
(Mat 26:23 NASB) And He answered and said, “He who dipped his hand with Me in the bowl is the one who will betray Me.
(Mat 26:24 NASB)”The Son of Man is to go, just as it is written of Him; but woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would have been good for that man if he had not been born.”
(Mat 26:25 NASB) And Judas, who was betraying Him, answered and said, “Surely it is not I, Rabbi?” He said^ to him, “You have said it yourself.”
Mat 26:25: The betrayal of Yeshua was foretold in the Tanakh (Psalm 41:9). Yeshua quoted this Psalm when He warned the disciples that He would be betrayed (John 13:18). This was prophesied elsewhere in the Tanakh also (Psalm 55:12-14).
(Mat 26:26 NASB) And while they were eating, Jesus took some bread, and after a blessing, He broke it and gave it to the disciples, and said, “Take, eat; this is My body.”
Mat 26:26: Yeshua shortly says that the wine is His blood of the New Covenant. Why the bread? It is common that a feast or meal be eaten when a covenant is ratified (Gen. 26:26-30, 31:43-54). When Elohim made the covenant with Noah, Noah sacrificed animals which became a feast. Elohim made a covenant with Israel to deliver them and commanded them to eat the Passover meal.
The fact that the New Covenant occurs during the meal is according to Scripture. Also, the food that he gives is doing the will of the Father (John 4:32-34).
(Mat 26:27 NASB) And when He had taken a cup and given thanks, He gave it to them, saying, “Drink from it, all of you;
(Mat 26:28 NASB) for this is My blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for forgiveness of sins.
Mat 26:28: This is the third cup of wine that is drunk during the Passover Celebration. It is called the Cup of Redemption, or the Cup of Salvation (Psalm 116:13). Paul tells us that Yeshua said to drink this cup in remembrance of Him (1 Cor. 11:25-26).
Notice the similarities in the making of the New Covenant with the Covenant made with Israel in the day of Moses (Ex. 24:7-8).
The blood of the Covenant made atonement for the sins of the people (Lev. 17:11). The blood of Messiah is for the total remission of sins.
(Mat 26:29 NASB) “But I say to you, I will not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on until that day when I drink it new with you in My Father’s kingdom.”
Mat 26:29: Yeshua is saying that He will not drink of the fruit of the vine until He drinks it new with them in the Father’s Kingdom. He is referring to His return and the Marriage Supper of the Lamb (Rev. 19:7-9, Isaiah 25:6-9).
Why does Yeshua say that He will not drink of the fruit of the vine until He returns? It would appear that Yeshua is taking the Nazarite vow (Num. 6:2-8). “Nazarite” means “One who is separated or consecrated.” When the time of the Nazarite vow is completed, the person is to bring an offering of a Lamb (which is probably Himself) and other offerings. He is then to shave his head and put the hair in the fire of the sacrifice.
We are told that when Yeshua returns, He will shave with the razor of the Assyrians (Isa. 7:20).
(Mat 26:30 NASB) And after singing a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives.
(Mat 26:31 NASB) Then Jesus said to them, “You will all fall away because of Me this night, for it is written, ‘I WILL STRIKE DOWN THE SHEPHERD, AND THE SHEEP OF THE FLOCK SHALL BE SCATTERED.’
Mat 26:31: His disciples will all scatter because it was prophesied they would do so. Yeshua quotes Zech. 13:7.
(Mat 26:32 NASB) “But after I have been raised, I will go before you to Galilee.”
(Mat 26:33 NASB) But Peter answered and said to Him, “Even though all may fall away because of You, I will never fall away.”
(Mat 26:34 NASB) Jesus said to him, “Truly I say to you that this very night, before a cock crows, you shall deny Me three times.”
Mat 26:34: Peter cannot picture himself falling away from Yeshua.
(Mat 26:35 NASB) Peter said to Him, “Even if I have to die with You, I will not deny You.” All the disciples said the same thing too.
Mat 26:35: Peter and all of the disciples said they will not deny Him even to death. This is similar to the declaration of the people to Elohim at Mt. Sinai (Ex. 19:8).
(Mat 26:36 NASB) Then Jesus came with them to a place called Gethsemane, and said to His disciples, “Sit here while I go over there and pray.”
(Mat 26:37 NASB) And He took with Him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, and began to be grieved and distressed.
Mat 26:37: Yeshua knew that He was facing a horrible death. He wanted to pray to His Father.
(Mat 26:38 NASB) Then He said to them, “My soul is deeply grieved, to the point of death; remain here and keep watch with Me.”
Mat 26:38: Yeshua is experiencing the grief and sorrow expressed in the Psalms (Psalm 116:3, 88:1-7, 14-16).
(Mat 26:39 NASB) And He went a little beyond them, and fell on His face and prayed, saying, “My Father, if it is possible, let this cup pass from Me; yet not as I will, but as Thou wilt.”
Mat 26:39: The “cup” spoken of here is the cup of the anger of Yahweh (Isa. 51:17, 22, Jer. 25:15-17, Ezek. 23:33). It has justifiably disturbed Yeshua greatly.
(Mat 26:40 NASB) And He came to the disciples and found them sleeping, and said to Peter, “So, you men could not keep watch with Me for one hour?
(Mat 26:41 NASB) “Keep watching and praying, that you may not enter into temptation; the spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak.”
Mat 26:41: The disciples could not stay awake at a time when Yeshua needs them awake and praying for Him. He is truly alone in facing the cup of the wrath of His Father.
(Mat 26:42 NASB) He went away again a second time and prayed, saying, “My Father, if this cannot pass away unless I drink it, Thy will be done.”
Mat 26:42: The cup of the wrath of Yahweh cannot pass unless He drinks it. If He does not do this, there is no salvation for any of mankind.
(Mat 26:43 NASB) And again He came and found them sleeping, for their eyes were heavy.
(Mat 26:44 NASB) And He left them again, and went away and prayed a third time, saying the same thing once more.
Mat 26:44: He prayed the same prayer again. He prayed “(Mat 26:42 NASB) He went away again a second time and prayed, saying, “My Father, if this cannot pass away unless I drink it, Thy will be done.”
(Mat 26:45 NASB) Then He came to the disciples, and said to them, “Are you still sleeping and taking your rest? Behold, the hour is at hand and the Son of Man is being betrayed into the hands of sinners.
(Mat 26:46 NASB) “Arise, let us be going; behold, the one who betrays Me is at hand!”
Mat 26:46: The Pharisees and the other enemies of Yeshua thought they had trapped Him. They thought they were in control of this situation. That is not true. They are merely pawns in the plan of the Father.
Yeshua is in complete control. He woke His disciples in order for them to witness what was to take place. Yeshua realized that He had to drink of the cup of the wrath of His Father. If He was to save Israel, He was to arrange His own self-sacrifice.
(Mat 26:47 NASB) And while He was still speaking, behold, Judas, one of the twelve, came up, accompanied by a great multitude with swords and clubs, from the chief priests and elders of the people.
(Mat 26:48 NASB) Now he who was betraying Him gave them a sign, saying, “Whomever I shall kiss, He is the one; seize Him.”
Mat 26:48: Judas was used as the one to betray Messiah. This was prophesied in several parts of Scripture (Psalm 55:20-21).
(Mat 26:49 NASB) And immediately he went to Jesus and said, “Hail, Rabbi!” and kissed Him.
(Mat 26:50 NASB) And Jesus said to him, “Friend, do what you have come for.” Then they came and laid hands on Jesus and seized Him.
Mat 26:50: Apparently Judas was extremely angered at Messiah for allowing the costly perfume to be used on Him instead of selling it for money. This seems to have been his primary motivation. Even the Proverbs seem to prophesy this traitorous act (Prov. 27:6).
(Mat 26:51 NASB) And behold, one of those who were with Jesus reached and drew out his sword, and struck the slave of the high priest, and cut off his ear.
Mat 26:51: John tells us that this was Peter that cut off the ear of the servant. Yeshua reminds Peter that this is a cup from which He must drink (John 18:10-11).
(Mat 26:52 NASB) Then Jesus said to him, “Put your sword back into its place; for all those who take up the sword shall perish by the sword.
Mat 26:52: It would appear that Yeshua was speaking to His companions that night when He said for them not to draw their swords. If they draw their swords that night, they will perish. I do not think He is speaking against His people defending themselves.
The next verse demonstrates that Yeshua is speaking topically of that current circumstance.
(Mat 26:53 NASB) “Or do you think that I cannot appeal to My Father, and He will at once put at My disposal more than twelve legions of angels?
Mat 26:53: Once again, when verses 52 and 53 are put together, it is evident that Yeshua is speaking in terms of His present situation. This account given in Luke also makes that clear (Luke 22:49-51).
(Mat 26:54 NASB) “How then shall the Scriptures be fulfilled, that it must happen this way?”
Mat 26:54: This event is prophesied in Psalm 22, 69, Isaiah 53, Dan. 9:24-26, and Zech. 13:7.
(Mat 26:55 NASB) At that time Jesus said to the multitudes, “Have you come out with swords and clubs to arrest Me as against a robber? Every day I used to sit in the temple teaching and you did not seize Me.
(Mat 26:56 NASB) “But all this has taken place that the Scriptures of the prophets may be fulfilled.” Then all the disciples left Him and fled.
Mat 26:56: Yeshua sat in the Temple teaching them every day and they could have grabbed Him at any time. He wasn’t hiding out from them. But they came under the cover of night with clubs and swords as if He were a thief.
(Mat 26:57 NASB) And those who had seized Jesus led Him away to Caiaphas, the high priest, where the scribes and the elders were gathered together.
(Mat 26:58 NASB) But Peter also was following Him at a distance as far as the courtyard of the high priest, and entered in, and sat down with the officers to see the outcome.
Mat 26:58: Yeshua was taken to face the hatred of the Sanhedrin. Peter sat down with the officers to see what would happen.
(Mat 26:59 NASB) Now the chief priests and the whole Council kept trying to obtain false testimony against Jesus, in order that they might put Him to death;
(Mat 26:60 NASB) and they did not find any, even though many false witnesses came forward. But later on two came forward,
Mat 26:60: It is strange that “many false witnesses came forward.” It is evident that the enemies of Yeshua offered a reward if someone could find fault with Him.
(Mat 26:61 NASB) and said, “This man stated, ‘I am able to destroy the temple of God and to rebuild it in three days.'”
(Mat 26:62 NASB) And the high priest stood up and said to Him, “Do You make no answer? What is it that these men are testifying against You?”
Mat 26:62: It is rather astounding that they had many false witnesses testify against Yeshua and this was the best lie they could invent.
In a similar vein, the people of Judah wanted to put Jeremiah to death for prophesying the destruction of Jerusalem (Jer. 26:8-11).
(Mat 26:63 NASB) But Jesus kept silent. And the high priest said to Him, “I adjure You by the living God, that You tell us whether You are the Christ, the Son of God.”
(Mat 26:64 NASB) Jesus said to him, “You have said it yourself; nevertheless I tell you, hereafter you shall see THE SON OF MAN SITTING AT THE RIGHT HAND OF POWER, and COMING ON THE CLOUDS OF HEAVEN.”
Mat 26:64: Yeshua is quoting the Tanakh as prophesying of Himself (Dan. 7:13, Psalm 110:1). The primary reason He said this was that He knew it would fuel the anger of His enemies.
(Mat 26:65 NASB) Then the high priest tore his robes, saying, “He has blasphemed! What further need do we have of witnesses? Behold, you have now heard the blasphemy;
Mat 26:65: The High Priest committed a grievous sin when he tore his clothes, but no one brings up that fact (Lev. 21:10).
(Mat 26:66 NASB) what do you think?” They answered and said, “He is deserving of death!”
(Mat 26:67 NASB) Then they spat in His face and beat Him with their fists; and others slapped Him,
(Mat 26:68 NASB) and said, “Prophesy to us, You Christ; who is the one who hit You?”
Mat 26:68: This was part of His humiliation that He endured for us. The sadistic Roman guards punched him in the face and slapped Him with open hands.
(Mat 26:69 NASB) Now Peter was sitting outside in the courtyard, and a certain servant-girl came to him and said, “You too were with Jesus the Galilean.”
(Mat 26:70 NASB) But he denied it before them all, saying, “I do not know what you are talking about.”
(Mat 26:71 NASB) And when he had gone out to the gateway, another servant-girl saw him and said to those who were there, “This man was with Jesus of Nazareth.”
Mat 26:71: Peter denied Yeshua. He said he would not do it, but he did.
(Mat 26:72 NASB) And again he denied it with an oath, “I do not know the man.”
(Mat 26:73 NASB) And a little later the bystanders came up and said to Peter, “Surely you too are one of them; for the way you talk gives you away.”
(Mat 26:74 NASB) Then he began to curse and swear, “I do not know the man!” And immediately a cock crowed.
Mat 26:74: Peter had an accent that gave away his homeland. One of the bystanders knew that he was from the same area as Yeshua.
Peter went as far as cursing and swearing to show that he was not one of them.
(Mat 26:75 NASB) And Peter remembered the word which Jesus had said, “Before a cock crows, you will deny Me three times.” And he went out and wept bitterly.
Mat 26:75: We are told in Luke that Yeshua looked over at Peter when he had denied Yeshua that third time (Luke 22:60-62). Peter came to his senses and realized what he had done. He wept bitterly for his sin.
Patrick McGuireCopyright 2014 Patrick McGuire and Beit Yeshua Torah Assembly All rights reserved, no portion of this Lesson may be reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission except in the case of brief quotations in articles and reviews. Beit Yeshua Torah Assembly Fort Smith, Arkansas