(Mat 28:1 NASB) Now after the Sabbath, as it began to dawn toward the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary came to look at the grave.
Mat 28:1: As the sun was rising on that next Sunday morning, Mary Magdalene and Mary, the mother of James, came to the tomb. The other Gospels tell us that Salome was with them and that there were probably other women with them also (Mark 16:1-2, Luke 23:56 – 24:1). John just mentions Mary Magdalene, because she is the one who ran and told the disciples (John 20:1-2).
(Mat 28:2 NASB) And behold, a severe earthquake had occurred, for an angel of the Lord descended from heaven and came and rolled away the stone and sat upon it.
(Mat 28:3 NASB) And his appearance was like lightning, and his garment as white as snow;
(Mat 28:4 NASB) and the guards shook for fear of him, and became like dead men.
Mat 28:4: The description of the angel indicates that he was probably just recently in the presence of the Father. Moses shone after He was with the Father and Yeshua shone after He prayed by Himself to the Father (who probably appeared to Him) and then Yeshua walked on water.
(Mat 28:5 NASB) And the angel answered and said to the women, “Do not be afraid; for I know that you are looking for Jesus who has been crucified.
Mat 28:5: Just as the angel in Daniel 10 knew what Daniel’s prayers were, this angel knew what the women were looking for and trying to do.
(Mat 28:6 NASB) “He is not here, for He has risen, just as He said. Come, see the place where He was lying.
(Mat 28:7 NASB) “And go quickly and tell His disciples that He has risen from the dead; and behold, He is going before you into Galilee, there you will see Him; behold, I have told you.”
Mat 28:7: The women are to give the news of His resurrection to the disciples. They will see Him in Galilee.
(Mat 28:8 NASB) And they departed quickly from the tomb with fear and great joy and ran to report it to His disciples.
(Mat 28:9 NASB) And behold, Jesus met them and greeted them. And they came up and took hold of His feet and worshiped Him.
Mat 28:9: The women told the disciples and came back. We are told that Mary Magdalene clung to Him, but He said He had to leave to go to His Father (John 20:11-17). He never said, “Do not touch me” as is mentioned to in the KJV.
(Mat 28:10 NASB) Then Jesus said to them, “Do not be afraid; go and take word to My brethren to leave for Galilee, and there they shall see Me.”
Mat 28:10: There are many who will see Him in Galilee. Yeshua, just like the messenger, tells them to tell the brethren to gather there.
(Mat 28:11 NASB) Now while they were on their way, behold, some of the guard came into the city and reported to the chief priests all that had happened.
(Mat 28:12 NASB) And when they had assembled with the elders and counseled together, they gave a large sum of money to the soldiers,
(Mat 28:13 NASB) and said, “You are to say, ‘His disciples came by night and stole Him away while we were asleep.’
(Mat 28:14 NASB) “And if this should come to the governor’s ears, we will win him over and keep you out of trouble.”
Mat 28:14: The guards accepted the money the chief priests gave them on the condition that they chief priests talk to the governor and keep them from getting into trouble.
(Mat 28:15 NASB) And they took the money and did as they had been instructed; and this story was widely spread among the Jews, and is to this day.
Mat 28:15: The story that the disciples stole the body is one that persists today. There is absolutely no evidence of it, but the story lives on…
(Mat 28:16 NASB) But the eleven disciples proceeded to Galilee, to the mountain which Jesus had designated.
(Mat 28:17 NASB) And when they saw Him, they worshiped Him; but some were doubtful.
Mat 28:17: Even though He appeared in front of them, some were doubtful. It is also likely that more than just the 11 were with him there. This is possibly where 500 saw Him (1 Cor. 15:6).
(Mat 28:18 NASB) And Jesus came up and spoke to them, saying, “All authority has been given to Me in heaven and on earth.
(Mat 28:19 NASB) “Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit,
(Mat 28:20 NASB) teaching them to observe all that I commanded you; and lo, I am with you always, even to the end of the age.”
Mat 28:20: This is one of the profound “Trinitarian” passages in Scripture. However, the Shem Tov reads differently:
(Matt. 28:18 Shem Tov) Yeshua drew near to them and said to them: To me has been given all power in heaven and earth.
(Matt. 28:19 Shem Tov) Go
(Matt. 28:20 Shem Tov) and (teach) them to carry out all the things which I have commanded you.
I am not a huge proponent of the Shem Tov. However, one distinct problem we have is that the extremely ancient copies of Matthew are missing the last chapter or two. So we cannot confirm the precise wording of this text by looking at the oldest manuscripts.
The witness of Eusibius is very compelling: According to Conybeare: “Eusebius cites this text of Matthew 28:19 again and again in works written between 300-336AD, namely in his long commentaries on the Psalms, on Isaiah, his Demonstration Evangelica, his Theophany, …in his famous history of the Church, and in his panegyric of the emperor Constantine. I have, after a moderate search in these works of Eusebius, found eighteen citations of Matthew 28:19, and always in the following form:
*Go ye and make disciples of all nations in my name, teaching them to observe all things, whatsoever I commanded you.*”
Conybeare proceeds: (In Hibbert Journal, 1902): “It is evident that this was the text found by Eusebius in the very ancient codices collected fifty to a hundred and fifty years before his birth by his great predecessors. Of any other form of text, he had never heard and knew nothing until he had visited Constantinople and attended the Council of Nice. Then in two controversial works written in his extreme old age, and entitled: *Against Marcellus of Ancyra,* and the other *About The Theology Of The Church,* he used the common reading after Nice. One other writing of his also contains it, namely a letter written after the Council of Nice was over, to his see of Caesarea.”
We know that after the ascension of Yeshua people were baptized in the name of Yeshua Messiah, not according to any Trinitarian recipe (Acts 2:38, 8:16, 10:48, 19:5).
Patrick McGuireCopyright 2014 Patrick McGuire and Beit Yeshua Torah Assembly All rights reserved, no portion of this Lesson may be reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission except in the case of brief quotations in articles and reviews. Beit Yeshua Torah Assembly Fort Smith, Arkansas