(Prov 30:1 NASB) The words of Agur the son of Jakeh, the oracle. The man declares to Ithiel, to Ithiel and Ucal:
Prov 30:1: According to Strong’s Concordance, Agur is another name for Solomon and Jakeh is also another name for Solomon.
One Rabbinic explanation is that these are not names, but descriptors of Solomon. “Agur” means “the gatherer or compiler” referencing him who gathered these proverbs. “Jakeh” means “to obey.” This could be a reference of Solomon to himself as one who compiled these proverbs which are to be obeyed.
Ithiel and Ucal are possibly students or followers of his. However, they could also be descriptions and not personal names. Ithiel means “Elohim has arrived.” Ucal means “devoured.” It could mean that the Proverbs show that Elohim has arrived and they are to be devoured by the hearer.
(Prov 30:2 NASB) Surely I am more stupid than any man, And I do not have the understanding of a man.
(Prov 30:3 NASB) Neither have I learned wisdom, Nor do I have the knowledge of the Holy One.
Prov 30:3: This is likely Solomon acknowledging his own sins of the past (1 Kings 11:1-10).
(Prov 30:4 NASB) Who has ascended into heaven and descended? Who has gathered the wind in His fists? Who has wrapped the waters in His garment? Who has established all the ends of the earth? What is His name or His son’s name? Surely you know!
Prov 30:4: The reference to His Son’s name is interesting. It certainly has Messianic implications.
Solomon is expressing his feelings of inadequacy in discussing the power and greatness of Elohim. This is similar to the words of Isaiah doing the same thing (Isaiah 40:12-14).
(Prov 30:5 NASB) Every word of God is tested; He is a shield to those who take refuge in Him.
Prov 30:5: Every word of Elohim is tested. The Hebrew word for “tested” is tsaraph. It means to smelt, refine, or test. His Word (Torah) is refined like pure silver after the dross is removed (Psalms 12:6-7, 18:30, 119:140, James 3:17).
(Prov 30:6 NASB) Do not add to His words Lest He reprove you, and you be proved a liar.
Prov 30:6: Elohim’s Word cannot be added to nor detracted from (Deut. 4:2, 12:32).
(Prov 30:7 NASB) Two things I asked of Thee, Do not refuse me before I die:
(Prov 30:8 NASB) Keep deception and lies far from me, Give me neither poverty nor riches; Feed me with the food that is my portion,
(Prov 30:9 NASB) Lest I be full and deny Thee and say, “Who is the LORD?” Or lest I be in want and steal, And profane the name of my God.
Prov 30:9: Solomon is saying that we should want deception and lies far from us and that we should want neither poverty nor great riches.
(Prov 30:10 NASB) Do not slander a slave to his master, Lest he curse you and you be found guilty.
Prov 30:10: To slander is to lie about someone else. This is always wrong, even about a slave.
(Prov 30:11 NASB) There is a kind of man who curses his father, And does not bless his mother.
(Prov 30:12 NASB) There is a kind who is pure in his own eyes, Yet is not washed from his filthiness.
(Prov 30:13 NASB) There is a kind– oh how lofty are his eyes! And his eyelids are raised in arrogance.
(Prov 30:14 NASB) There is a kind of man whose teeth are like swords, And his jaw teeth like knives, To devour the afflicted from the earth, And the needy from among men.
Prov 30:14: This is a warning against four kinds of evil men: Those who do not honor their parents, those who are hypocrites, those who are prideful and arrogant, and those who are greedy.
(Prov 30:15 NASB) The leech has two daughters, “Give,” “Give.” There are three things that will not be satisfied, Four that will not say, “Enough”:
(Prov 30:16 NASB) Sheol, and the barren womb, Earth that is never satisfied with water, And fire that never says, “Enough.”
Prov 30:16: The names of the two daughters of the leech are identical. They are both named “give me.” There are four types of bloodsuckers that never say “enough.” (1) “the grave,” which is never filled with its victims; (2) “the barren womb,” which continually longs for a child; (3) “the earth,” whose thirsty ground is never completely satisfied with water; and (4) “the fire,” which rages all the more as it is fed.
(Prov 30:17 NASB) The eye that mocks a father, And scorns a mother, The ravens of the valley will pick it out, And the young eagles will eat it.
Prov 30:17: The judgment of that person is that the body will lie unburied for birds to feed upon (Deut. 28:26).
(Prov 30:18 NASB) There are three things which are too wonderful for me, Four which I do not understand:
(Prov 30:19 NASB) The way of an eagle in the sky, The way of a serpent on a rock, The way of a ship in the middle of the sea, And the way of a man with a maid.
Prov 30:19: These four things are too wonderful either because they do not leave tracks or because they are simply amazing to observe.
(Prov 30:20 NASB) This is the way of an adulterous woman: She eats and wipes her mouth, And says, “I have done no wrong.”
Prov 30:20: The adulterous woman looks at her immoral acts as being as ordinary and normal as eating a meal.
(Prov 30:21 NASB) Under three things the earth quakes, And under four, it cannot bear up:
(Prov 30:22 NASB) Under a slave when he becomes king, And a fool when he is satisfied with food,
(Prov 30:23 NASB) Under an unloved woman when she gets a husband, And a maidservant when she supplants her mistress.
Prov 30:23: Four things are listed as unbearable: (1) an unfitting and unprepared slave that is made king, (2) a fool who in arrogance and selfishness is overbearing, (3) an unloved or hateful woman who takes her frustrations out on her husband and children, (4) a maidservant who steals the affections of the husband of her mistress.
(Prov 30:24 NASB) Four things are small on the earth, But they are exceedingly wise:
(Prov 30:25 NASB) The ants are not a strong folk, But they prepare their food in the summer;
(Prov 30:26 NASB) The badgers are not mighty folk, Yet they make their houses in the rocks;
(Prov 30:27 NASB) The locusts have no king, Yet all of them go out in ranks;
(Prov 30:28 NASB) The lizard you may grasp with the hands, Yet it is in kings’ palaces.
Prov 30:28: The designed wisdom given to these creatures shows the magnificence of the Creator. Ants store up food. Badgers (rabbits) make their houses in rocks for safety. Locusts do not have a leader, but they go in ranks and organization. Lizards are small and vulnerable, but somehow show up even in king’s palaces.
(Prov 30:29 NASB) There are three things which are stately in their march, Even four which are stately when they walk:
(Prov 30:30 NASB) The lion which is mighty among beasts And does not retreat before any,
(Prov 30:31 NASB) The strutting cock, the male goat also, And a king when his army is with him.
Prov 30:31: These four things are stately in their march. The KJV states “greyhound” instead of “rooster” in verse 31.
(Prov 30:32 NASB) If you have been foolish in exalting yourself Or if you have plotted evil, put your hand on your mouth.
Prov 30:32: The message here is to avoid speaking evil.
(Prov 30:33 NASB) For the churning of milk produces butter, And pressing the nose brings forth blood; So the churning of anger produces strife.
Prov 30:33: If anger is not restrained, strife will most certainly be the result.
Patrick McGuireCopyright 2014 Patrick McGuire and Beit Yeshua Torah Assembly All rights reserved, no portion of this Lesson may be reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission except in the case of brief quotations in articles and reviews. Beit Yeshua Torah Assembly Fort Smith, Arkansas