(Rom 13:1 NASB)  Let every person be in subjection to the governing authorities. For there is no authority except from God, and those which exist are established by God.

Rom 13:1:      Paul is giving the Roman assembly a lesson in Torah.  Every person is to be subject to the governing authority (Deut. 17:12, Numbers 15:30-31).
All authority is established by Elohim.  This is a well established fact of Torah and Tanakh (Prov. 8:15-16, Jer. 27:5-8, Dan. 2:21-22, 4:32).


(Rom 13:2 NASB)  Therefore he who resists authority has opposed the ordinance of God; and they who have opposed will receive condemnation upon themselves.

Rom 13:2:      Paul makes the point that willful disobedience to authority opposes the ordinance of Elohim and they will receive condemnation upon themselves.


(Rom 13:3 NASB)  For rulers are not a cause of fear for good behavior, but for evil. Do you want to have no fear of authority? Do what is good, and you will have praise from the same;
(Rom 13:4 NASB)  for it is a minister of God to you for good. But if you do what is evil, be afraid; for it does not bear the sword for nothing; for it is a minister of God, an avenger who brings wrath upon the one who practices evil.
(Rom 13:5 NASB)  Wherefore it is necessary to be in subjection, not only because of wrath, but also for conscience’ sake.

Rom 13:5:      Paul is quoting from the Tanakh (Prov. 14:35, 20:2).


(Rom 13:6 NASB)  For because of this you also pay taxes, for rulers are servants of God, devoting themselves to this very thing.
(Rom 13:7 NASB)  Render to all what is due them: tax to whom tax is due; custom to whom custom; fear to whom fear; honor to whom honor.

Rom 13:7:      I don’t want to spend more time on us paying our taxes than we need to.  However, judges, rulers, and the services provided through their authority must be funded.


(Rom 13:8 NASB)  Owe nothing to anyone except to love one another; for he who loves his neighbor has fulfilled the law.

Rom 13:8:      Owe nothing to anyone.  This is another command in Torah (Lev. 19:13, Deut. 24:14-15, Prov. 3:27-28).  Except to love one another.  He who loves his neighbor has made Torah full.


(Rom 13:9 NASB)  For this, “YOU SHALL NOT COMMIT ADULTERY, YOU SHALL NOT MURDER, YOU SHALL NOT STEAL, YOU SHALL NOT COVET,” and if there is any other commandment, it is summed up in this saying, “YOU SHALL LOVE YOUR NEIGHBOR AS YOURSELF.”

Rom 13:9:      Paul is saying that all the commandments pertaining to others can be summed by the command given in Torah (Lev. 19:18, 34).


(Rom 13:10 NASB)  Love does no wrong to a neighbor; love therefore is the fulfillment of the law.

Rom 13:10:      Paul reminds is that love is not a feeling.  Love is action.  Love is positive action that is beneficial to those to whom it is directed.  That is how the term is used in Torah and that is how the term is used in the Brit Hadashah.
The translation of this passage in virtually all translations is deceptive.  The Greek word for “fulfillment” is G4138. playrwma,  from G4137; fullness, a filling up:– all it contains(m)(1), fulfillment(2), full(2), fulness(10), patch(m)(2).
It is almost always translated as “fulness” unless the translators can place solace in the antinomian mind that the Torah has been “fulfilled” and is no longer necessary.


(Rom 13:11 NASB)  And this do, knowing the time, that it is already the hour for you to awaken from sleep; for now salvation is nearer to us than when we believed.
(Rom 13:12 NASB)  The night is almost gone, and the day is at hand. Let us therefore lay aside the deeds of darkness and put on the armor of light.

Rom 13:12:      Paul is using a common reference in Scripture.  Turn away from disobedience to Torah and turn to righteousness (Ezek. 18:31-32).


(Rom 13:13 NASB)  Let us behave properly as in the day, not in carousing and drunkenness, not in sexual promiscuity and sensuality, not in strife and jealousy.
(Rom 13:14 NASB)  But put on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision for the flesh in regard to its lusts.

Rom 13:14:      Paul condemns those sins that tempt many people most often.  He tells us to put on Yeshua Messiah, who is the Word (Torah) of Elohim made flesh (1 John 2:15-17).

Patrick McGuire

Copyright 2014
Patrick McGuire and Beit Yeshua Torah Assembly
All rights reserved, no portion of this Lesson may be reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission except in the case of brief quotations in articles and reviews.
Beit Yeshua Torah Assembly
Fort Smith, Arkansas

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